Poland's economy is booming and wages have been rising in the private sector. But those who protested Saturday say their state wages remain too law and have not been growing.
One teachers' union says experienced teachers earn at most 3,317 zlotys ($907) a month, with those starting out even less.
Union organizers estimated 20,000 people took part in the demonstration.
Thousands of teachers who turned out also demanded the dismissal of the country's education minister. They say an overhaul of Poland's educational system has brought chaos and made their jobs more difficult.
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